Reasoning Ability test paper-1

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Section – I : Reasoning Ability

Given below is a passage followed by three questions. Answer the questions on the basis of the information given in the passage. Elderly people with few worries and little stress are probably better protected against the progress of Alzheimer’s disease than their peers who are under psychological pressure. Stress can promote the kind of brain degeneration that leads to symptoms of dementia, according to Argentine researchers attending a recent congress of the European Neurological Society in Prague. The researchers said this was a good reason to pay greater heed to psychological health among the elderly. Alzheimer’s is said to be the most common form of dementia in the world, with the risk factors found to be age, high blood pressure, diabetes, and physical and mental idleness.

1. The inference that can be validly drawn from the information presented above is:

  1. Stress causes Alzheimer’s in the elderly.
  2. Dementia and Alzheimer’s are diseases caused by aging.
  3. Physical and mental activity can help delay the onset of dementia.
  4. Diabetics with high blood pressure and low levels of activity and high levels of stress should be careful and get regular checkups done to catch the signs of Alzheimer’s early.
  5. None of these

2. Which of the following is an assumption, which is implicit in the facts stated in the above passage?

  1. Only aging people are generally exposed to a risk of dementia.
  2. Psychological health plays a major role in the onset of the Alzheimer’s disease among the elderly.
  3. Alzheimer’s in not curable once it reaches a critical stage.
  4. Elderly people generally have a lot ofworries.
  5. Both (1) and (2)

3. Which of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage?

  1. Dementia can only affect the elderly having psychological issues.
  2. The Argentine researchers found a definite cure to the Alzheimer’s disease.
  3. Alzheimer’s disease can be significantly avoided by paying heed to the psychological issues of the elderly.
  4. The Alzheimer’s disease is a big threat to the society.
  5. None of these

Given below is a passage followed by three questions. Answer the questions on the basis of the information given in the passage. Aid to give people in developing countries access to clean water and sanitation has been shrinking as a proportion of global aid budgets, with the result that more than a billion people will not get the help they were promised by rich countries under the Millennium Development Goals. Instead, donors are restricting aid to projects such as schools and hospitals — even though the benefits of those are diminished if their recipients have no clean water or toilets.

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the argument above?

  1. Water and sanitation are more important than schooling and medical aid.
  2. Clean water and sanitation now account for the least proportion of global aid amounts.
  3. Investing in water and decent sanitation has been found to be one of the most effective uses of development aid.
  4. Western countries have gone back on their promise of aid in the area of water and sanitation, and instead are focusing on education and health.
  5. None of these.

5. Which of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage?

  1. The sanitary conditions as well as clean water availability in developing nations, both are diminishing due to the shrinking of the global aid budget for the same.
  2. The Millennium Development Goals promised all round development for the developing countries.
  3. Water and sanitation are the only important problems to be dealt with at present.
  4. For the developing countries to bloom, aid from the rich countries
  5. Both (1) and (4)

6. Which of the following is an assumption, which is implicit in the facts stated in the above passage?

  1. The developed countries are always committed to help the developing nations.
  2. The developing countries are facing a big problem of sanitation and a shortage of clean water.
  3. The Millennium Development Goals only had a few primary goals.
  4. Once the water and sanitary situation in the developing nations improves, development will be much easier.
  5. Both (2) and (4)

In each of the questions below there are four statements followed by four conclusions numbered I, II, III and IV. You have to take the given statements to be true, even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follow from the given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

7. Statements:
All days are trays.
All trays are girls.
All girls are boys.
All boys are sticks.

Conclusions:
I. Some sticks are girls.
II. Some girls are days.
III. Some sticks are days.
IV. Some trays are days.

  1. Only I follows.
  2. Only II follows
  3. All follow.
  4. Only III and IV follow.
  5. Only I and IV follow.

8.Statements:
Some donkeys are horses.
All horses are parrots.
No parrot is monkey.
All donkeys are ducks.

Conclusions:
I. Some ducks are parrots.
II. Some parrots are donkeys.
III. Some horses are ducks.
IV. Some ducks are donkeys.

  1. Only II and III follow.
  2. Only I, II and IV follow.
  3. Only II, III and IV follow.
  4. All follow.
  5. None of these.

9.Statements:
Some tables are chairs.
Some chairs are sofas.
No sofa is couch.
All couches are crockery.

Conclusions:
I. No sofa is crockery.
II. Some tables are sofas.
III. Some sofas are crockery.
IV. Some chairs are couch.

  1. Only I follows.
  2. Only II and III follow.
  3. Only IV follows.
  4. Either I or III follows.
  5. None of these.

10.Statements:
Some mobiles are covers.
Some covers are cards.
All cards are batteries.
Some batteries are chips.

Conclusions:
I. Some mobiles are cards.
II. Some covers are chips.
III. Some cards are mobiles.
IV. No chip is mobile.

  1. Only I follows.
  2. Only II and III follow.
  3. Only IV follows.
  4. Either I or III follows.
  5. None of these.

11.Statements:
All monitors are keyboards.
Some keyboards are files.
Some files are computers.
No computer is battery.

Conclusions:
I. Some monitors are files.
II. No keyboard is a battery.
III. No file is a battery.
IV. Some keyboards are battery.

  1. None follows.
  2. Only I follows.
  3. Only II and III follow.
  4. Only IV follows.
  5. None of these.

Explanations

1. 4 Option (1) is not true because as per the passage, stress promotes brain degeneration but does not necessarily cause Alzheimer. A ’cause’ is the reason for the disease and a ‘risk factor’ increases the chances of acquiring the disease. Option (2) may be factually correct but there is no evidence in the passage to suggest that aging causes dementia. Option (3) cannot be inferred from the passage because Alzheimer’s is only one type of dementia. There may be other types of dementia for which physical and mental idleness are not risk factors. Option (4) can be inferred because the latter part of the passage says that the risk factors are age, high blood pressure, diabetes, and physical and mental idleness. This imply that people with these risk factors need to be extra careful.

2. 2 Option (1) is not correct because while the passage deals with a specific case of potential dementia victims, it cannot be specific to only aging people. There is a lot of stress implied on the psychological well being of the elderly, and the factors like blood pressure, idleness and stress are all psychological factors. Hence, it can be safely assumed that psychological health is very important in this case. Options (3) and (4) are not relevant as there is no evidence in the passage to warrant such assumptions.

3. 3 Option (1) is not a valid conclusion because the passage does not state that only the elders with psychological issues suffer from Alzheimer’s disease. Option (2) again has no evidence in the passage. Option (3) is a valid conclusion because the passage lays too much importance on psychological health of the elderly and implies that it is an efficient factor in the prevention of dementia. Option (4) is not a valid conclusion as we do not know to what extent the disease affects the society.

4. 1 Option (1) is the correct choice. This can be evidenced from the line – “even though the benefits of those are diminished if their recipients have no clean water or toilets.” Thus, option (1) can be inferred from the passage. Option (2) is incorrect as the passage states that the budget for clean water and sanitation is shrinking which doesn’t mean that it now accounts for the least proportion in the global aid budget. Option (3) doesn’t follow from the passage, as we don’t know how effective investing in water and sanitation is. Option (4) talks about western countries, whereas the passage talks about rich countries. Thus, option (4) cannot be inferred.

5. 1 Option (1) is valid because the passage clearly states that more than a billion people will not get the help promised to them by the rich countries and also the fact that the donors are shifting their attention more towards education and hospitals. Option (2) is not valid because the passage does not talk of the Millennium Development Goals’ commitment towards all round development of developing nations. Option (3) is incorrect since the passage does not state that water and sanitation are the only two important problems to be dealt with. Option (4) is not implied anywhere in the passage and hence cannot be correct.

6. 2 The option (1) is not true because the passage does not talk about full time commitment from the developed nations towards developing nations. Option (2) is a fine assumption because one of the reasons aid is required for the developing nations is their sanitary and clean drinking water problem. Option (3) is again not a correct assumption because there is no mention of the number of goals of the Millennium Development Goal in the passage. Option (4) cannot be the answer because we get no idea from the passage about the effect these two issues have on development.

7. 3
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8. 4
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9. 4
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10. 1
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11. 3
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